The problem of slowing down vortexes at air plane wings has been solved by birds in an impressive way. They fly tens of thousands of kilometres with little more than a few grams of grease. If one learns from the surface structure of the feathers and the wing movement, one can save huge amounts of kerosene. It is the same thing for swimming underwater. Inelastic hulks with propellers used by ships and submarines create vortexes to kill energy. Whales, an other water animals, are able to swim with no or little vortexes, perhaps they even use them for swimming.

For example the brown trout can stand motionless in a mountain stream and can swim at a high speed contrary to the water flow. This can be an attribute to the temperature and distribution of water. In case of pouring in hot water upriver, the brown trout is no able to hold the position and is flushed away downstream.

A most intriguing phenomenon is the fact, trout and salmon have the skill to jump several meters vertically in a waterfall. These fishes spawn in the headwaters of mountain streams plunging on their way downwards over dozens of meters.

Evidently flowing water over a ridge it spools in a greater vortex – every vortex consists of two of these – and in the inner one the fish will be carried away? In this area some experiments would be worth doing to clear up the laws of nature. Biology and physics has not come up with any idea re-acting to this topic so far.

There is a fowl similar to the guinea fowl – in German called Odinshühnchen- with an intriguing method of getting food in water. It generates a spiral at the bottom of the water with it´s webbed feet. From there the spiral lifts the substances from the bottom to the surface to feed the fowl.

Note: one can create a vortex in water lifting something from the ground level to the surface without significant energy input.

Many animals and plants create spiral or hyperbolic forms. Here is, for instance, a contemporary snail-shell and a fossil one.

SchneckenhausAmmonite

Fig.: Snail-shell                                                       Fig.: Ammonite

The kudu antelope has specially formed horns which guided Viktor Schauberger to his invention the “Doppeldrallrohr”. The horn is hollow and has a tear like cross section. This encouraged experiments.

Kuduhorn

Fig.: Horn of a kudu antelope

Kuduhornquerschnitt

Fig.: Cross section of kudu antelope horn